Iron Deficiency in Blood: Symptoms and Solutions

Iron is an essential element that plays a crucial role in the functioning of all cells and organs in the human body. Its necessity lies in providing oxygenation to cells, which is essential for their proper functioning. Since the body cannot produce iron on its own, its intake from the diet is absolutely essential. Iron deficiency in the blood can lead to serious health complications, with women of reproductive age being particularly susceptible to this issue. However, iron deficiency can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender. So, how can we effectively monitor iron levels and prevent anemia and other troubles? In this article, we will focus on the causes of iron deficiency and options for addressing this issue and replenishing iron in our bodies.



Causes of Iron Deficiency

Iron deficiency in the blood can be caused by several factors, such as inadequate intake of iron in the diet, reduced body's ability to absorb iron, increased need for iron due to growth or pregnancy, blood loss, or certain health issues like celiac disease or Crohn's disease. The most common reasons include:

  • Poor diet: Inadequate intake of iron-rich foods can lead to a deficiency of this mineral.
  • Malabsorption: Some health issues, like celiac disease or Crohn's disease, can hinder the absorption of iron from the intestines.
  • Blood loss: Menstruation, bleeding from the digestive tract, or other health issues can cause iron loss.
  • Pregnancy: Pregnant women need more iron as the increased blood volume and fetal growth elevate the demand for this mineral.

Symptoms of Iron Deficiency

Some common symptoms of iron deficiency include:

  • Fatigue and weakness: Iron deficiency can lead to reduced red blood cell production and decreased ability to transport oxygen to cells.
  • Pale skin: Iron deficiency can cause pale skin and mucous membranes.
  • Increased heart rate: The heart has to work harder to supply enough oxygen to cells, which can result in an increased heart rate.
  • Increased susceptibility to infections: Iron deficiency can weaken the immune system and increase susceptibility to infections.
  • Inflammation of the tongue, cracks at the corners of the mouth, and brittle nails can be signs of iron deficiency.

Iron deficiency is more common in:

  • Vegans and vegetarians

One of the most vulnerable groups are vegans, vegetarians, and others who avoid meat. Meat is a rich source of easily absorbable iron, and its absence in the diet can lead to iron deficiency. To prevent iron deficiency, it's important to include plant-based iron sources in your diet, such as legumes, whole grains, dark green leafy vegetables, nuts, and seeds.

  • Regular blood donors

Regular blood donors are also among the at-risk groups, as most of the body's available iron circulates in the blood. Greater blood losses can lead to iron deficiency. To prevent anemia, it's important to include iron-rich foods in the diet and monitor iron levels in the blood.

  • Pregnant women

Pregnant women are among the most vulnerable groups when it comes to iron deficiency. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the prevalence of anemia in pregnancy is about 41%. Pregnant women need to nourish both themselves and their growing fetus with iron, which increases their need for iron up to double the normal amount - around 30 mg daily.

Diagnosing Iron Deficiency

If you suspect iron deficiency, it's advisable to visit a doctor who will perform blood tests to determine iron levels and other parameters such as ferritin and transferrin. These tests will help the doctor ascertain whether you have iron deficiency and its severity.

Effectively Supplementing Iron

If you're suffering from iron deficiency, it's important to find ways to effectively supplement it. Here are some tips on increasing iron levels in your diet and supplementing iron:

  • Consume iron-rich foods: Iron deficiency can be supplemented by increasing iron intake from food, especially by consuming foods rich in iron such as red meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, seeds, dark green leafy vegetables, and whole grains. Additionally, enhancing iron absorption can be achieved by combining iron-rich foods with foods high in vitamin C. In some cases, a doctor may recommend iron supplements.
  • Enhance iron absorption: Vitamin C improves iron absorption from the intestines. Incorporate vitamin C-rich fruits and vegetables into your meals, like citrus fruits, strawberries, kiwi, broccoli, or peppers.
  • Avoid foods that hinder iron absorption: Caffeine, dairy products, and certain minerals (like calcium and zinc) can reduce iron absorption. Limit their consumption, especially when consuming iron-rich foods. In the case of cereals, high fiber content hinders its absorption.
  • Supplements: In some cases, taking iron supplements may be necessary. Consult your doctor regarding dosage and the most suitable type of supplements for you. When taking iron supplements, it's recommended to also consume vitamin C for better absorption.

What is the Recommended Daily Intake of Iron?

The recommended daily intake of iron varies based on age, gender, and life stage. For adult males, the recommended daily intake of iron is 8 mg, while for adult females aged 19-50, it's 18 mg, and for females over 50, it's 8 mg. Pregnant women should increase their intake to 27 mg to meet the increased demands of pregnancy.

Iron Deficiency Can Lead to Anemia

Anemia is a condition in which a person lacks an adequate number of red blood cells or has a reduced amount of hemoglobin in the blood. Around 1.5 billion people worldwide suffer from anemia, making it the most common disorder related to our diet. Hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells, binds to oxygen and enables its transport from the lungs to other parts of the body while removing carbon dioxide. Anemia can be caused by various factors, such as a deficiency of iron, vitamin B12, bleeding, or chronic illness.

Symptoms of anemia may include fatigue, weakness, paleness, rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, dizziness, and headaches. Treatment depends on the cause of anemia and may involve nutritional supplementation, medication, or blood transfusion.

Why Do Pregnant Women Need Higher Iron Intake?

Pregnant women require more oxygen and nutrients for both themselves and their developing fetus. During pregnancy, blood volume increases, leading to an increased need for iron to produce hemoglobin, which transports oxygen in the blood.

Iron deficiency during pregnancy can lead to anemia, which can have negative impacts on both the mother and the child. For the mother, anemia can increase the risk of complications during childbirth and result in greater fatigue. For the child, iron deficiency can lead to low birth weight, preterm birth, or developmental issues.


Frequently Asked Questions

How quickly can iron levels be replenished?

Try suitable dietary supplements and combine them with vitamin C, which enhances iron absorption. In general, with adequate iron intake and addressing the causes of deficiency, iron levels should improve within several weeks to months.

Are there any foods or drinks to avoid when supplementing iron?

When supplementing iron, it's important to be aware that some foods and drinks can reduce its absorption. Coffee, tea, dairy products, and foods rich in calcium, phytates, or oxalates can hinder iron absorption. In cereals, high fiber content is problematic as it hampers absorption. Try to limit consumption of these foods or consume them separately from iron-rich foods or iron supplements.

What to eat when experiencing iron deficiency?

When facing iron deficiency, you should consume iron-rich foods such as red meat, poultry, fish, legumes (lentils, chickpeas, beans), nuts, seeds, dark leafy greens (spinach, kale), whole grains, and iron-fortified foods (bread, cereals). It's also beneficial to combine these foods with vitamin C-rich foods (oranges, strawberries, bell peppers, broccoli) to enhance iron absorption.

What is anemia and how does it relate to iron deficiency?

Anemia is a condition where the body lacks sufficient healthy red blood cells or hemoglobin, which is crucial for oxygen transport. Iron deficiency is one of the most common causes of anemia because iron is a fundamental component of hemoglobin.

What are the symptoms of iron deficiency and anemia?

Symptoms of iron deficiency and anemia can include fatigue, weakness, paleness, dizziness, shortness of breath, rapid heart rate, headaches, insomnia, and poor concentration. In severe cases, low blood pressure, increased heart rate, and enlargement of the liver or spleen may occur.

How can I determine if I have iron deficiency or anemia?

To diagnose iron deficiency or anemia, you should undergo a blood test that measures iron levels, hemoglobin, and ferritin. If you suspect iron deficiency or anemia, it's important to discuss your symptoms with a doctor.

How to supplement iron deficiency?

Iron deficiency can be addressed by consuming iron-rich foods such as red meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, seeds, dark leafy greens, whole grains, and iron-fortified foods. In some cases, iron supplements may be necessary, as advised by a doctor.

Who is most at risk for iron deficiency and anemia?

The most vulnerable groups include pregnant women, children, vegans, vegetarians, regular blood donors, and individuals with chronic conditions such as celiac disease, Crohn's disease, or ulcerative colitis, which can affect the body's ability to absorb iron.

Can I prevent iron deficiency and anemia?

Yes, you can prevent iron deficiency and anemia by consuming a diet rich in iron and combining it with foods high in vitamin C, which enhances iron absorption. Additionally, it's important to regularly monitor iron levels, especially if you belong to any of the risk groups.

Can you overdose on iron?

Yes, iron overdose is possible and can have serious health consequences such as organ damage, heart problems, and even death. It's important to adhere to recommended daily iron intake and consult with a doctor when using dietary supplements to prevent excessive iron consumption.

Can medications affect iron levels?

Some medications can influence iron levels by increasing or decreasing its absorption or excretion. If you're taking medications that might impact iron levels, it's crucial to discuss this with a doctor and regularly monitor iron levels in the blood.

Why are children more susceptible to iron deficiency and anemia?

Children are more susceptible to iron deficiency and anemia for several reasons. Firstly, rapid growth and development require a larger amount of iron. Secondly, some children may not have sufficient iron intake in their diets due to limited consumption of iron-rich foods or low bioavailability of iron from plant sources. Additionally, certain health conditions can increase the risk of iron deficiency in children.

What are the symptoms of iron deficiency and anemia in children?

Symptoms of iron deficiency and anemia in children can include fatigue, paleness, increased susceptibility to infections, slowed growth and development, behavioral disorders, reduced attention span, and poor appetite. In severe cases, anemia can lead to heart problems and worsen overall health.

How can I prevent iron deficiency and anemia in children?

Preventing iron deficiency and anemia in children involves promoting a balanced diet rich in iron-containing foods, including meats, poultry, fish, legumes, dark leafy greens, and iron-fortified grains. For children not obtaining sufficient iron through their diet, considering dietary supplements after consulting a doctor might be appropriate. Monitoring iron levels in children at risk and addressing potential health issues that could lead to iron deficiency is also important.

When should I seek a doctor if I suspect my child has iron deficiency or anemia?

If you suspect your child is experiencing iron deficiency or anemia, it's important to consult a doctor or pediatrician as soon as possible. A doctor will conduct a physical examination and may order blood tests to determine your child's iron and hemoglobin levels. If iron deficiency or anemia is confirmed, the doctor will recommend appropriate treatment and a dietary plan to improve your child's iron levels.


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Lucie Konečná, from nanoSPACE
Lucie Konečná has been working in the field of nanotechnology for 7 years. She is a co-author of the Czech is Nano project and has been involved in building public awareness of nanotechnology. Lucie has been managing operations of the nanoSPACE e-shop since May 2020.